Using the ACDł-ladder to manage multi-phase requirements on end-user products

DS 87-4 Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 17) Vol 4: Design Methods and Tools, Vancouver, Canada, 21-25.08.2017

Year: 2017
Editor: Anja Maier, Stanko Škec, Harrison Kim, Michael Kokkolaras, Josef Oehmen, Georges Fadel, Filippo Salustri, Mike Van der Loos
Author: Berlin, Cecilia; Bligĺrd, Lars-Ola; Simonsen, Eva
Series: ICED
Institution: 1: Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Production Systems, Sweden; 2: Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Design and Human Factors, Sweden
Section: Design Methods and Tools
Page(s): 425-434
ISBN: 978-1-904670-92-6
ISSN: 2220-4342


During the development of any end-user product, a multitude of design decisions need to be made. But if design activities and decisions happen at the wrong time, or not at all, unintentional and sometimes negative design outcomes can be the result. Determining all requirements early in the product development is traditionally recommended, but may force design decisions to be made prematurely on the basis of incomplete preconditions. Requirements at different degrees of resolution are useful and purposeful at different stages of the development process. To address these requirements management challenges, this paper proposes an approach for incrementally developing requirements in parallel with design, based upon a previously developed framework called ACDł, which draws on a combination of theoretically compatible ideas and concepts from Design Engineering, Human Factors/Ergonomics, Usability and Systems Theory. This approach helps designers identify and handle the possible interdependencies of design variables. The paper also theoretically motivates and demonstrates with an example how the different resolution levels of requirements relate within the framework.

Keywords: Organisation of product development, Design management, Multi- / Cross- / Trans-disciplinary processes, Requirements


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